Edessa - ܐܘܪܗܝ

http://syriaca.org/place/78

A city of Mesopotamia, the capital of the ancient kingdom of Osrhoene, modern Urfa.

Place Type: settlement

Location

  • Coordinates:
    • Lat. 37.15°
    • Long. 38.8°2
  • "five day journey eastward from Aleppo"5

Brief Descriptions

  • ܡܕܺܝܢܬܐ ܗܳܝ ܛܒܝܒܬܳܐ ܠܡܰܕܢܚܳܐ ܕܚܳܠܳܒ ܚܰܡܫܳܐ ܝܰܘܡ̈ܝܢ ܘܡܶܫܬܰܡܗܐ ܝܰܘܡܳܢ ܐܘܪܦܰܗ̈3
  • مدينة مشهورة خمسة ايام عن حلب شرقا وتسمى اليوم اورفه.4
  • 183. Edessa1
  • a famous city, five day journey eastward from Aleppo, now called Urfa.5

Events

  • Renamed Edessa by Seleucus I Nicator. (304 BCE) 1
  • Flood of the river Daiṣan destroyed part of city. (201) 1
  • Full incorporation into the Roman Empire. (213) 1
  • Closure of the "School of the Persians." (489) 1
  • Edessa conquered by the Arabs. (641) 1
  • Edessa conquered by the Crusaders. (1098) 1
  • Edessa conquered by Zengi of Mosul. (1144) 1
  • Edessa incorporated into the Ottoman Empire. (1517) 1
  • Massacres of some of Armenian and Syriac Christians during World War I. (not before 1913, not after 1919) 1
  • Emigration of remaining Armenian and Syrian Christians to Aleppo. (1924) 1

Attestations

  • Attestation of Christian church in Edessa according to the Chronicle of Edessa. (201) 10
  • Attestation of anti-Chalcedonian bishop in Edessa according to the Chronicle of Edessa. (520) 10
  • Attestation of Chalcedonian bishop in Edessa according to the Chronicle of Edessa. (522) 10
  • Attestation of Chalcedonian author in Edessa according to the Chronicle of Edessa. (not before 540) 10
  • Attestation of name ܐܘܪܗܝ in the anonymous Chronicle of 1234. (not before 1146, not after 1234) 9
  • Attestation of Syrian Orthodox church in Edessa in the anonymous Chronicle of 1234. (1146) 9
  • Attestation of names الرُّهاء and أَذاسا in the Muʿjam al-buldān of Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī. (not before 1224, not after 1228) 12
  • Attestation of Syrian Orthodox metropolitan for Edessa according to Barsoum's Scattered Pearls. (1624) 5

Known Religious Communities

This list is not necessarily exhaustive, and the order does not represent importance or proportion of the population. Dates do not represent starting or ending dates of a group's presence, but rather when they are attested. Instead, the list only represents groups for which Syriaca.org has source(s) and dates.

  • Christians (attested as early as 201, as late as 1624) 1
    • Syriac (attested as early as 520, as late as 1624)
      • West Syrian (attested as early as 520, as late as 1624)
        • Melkite (attested as early as 522, as late as 540)
        • Syrian Orthodox (attested as early as 520, as late as 1624) 1
    • Latin (no attestations yet recorded) 1
  • Jews (no attestations yet recorded) 11
  • Muslims (no attestations yet recorded) 1

Incerta

  1. GEDSH article identifies its river as the Balikh, but the identification is contested.
  Is this record complete?

Sources

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 Sebastian P. Brock et al. (eds.), The Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2011), pp: 138-139.Link to Syriaca.org Bibliographic Record
  • 2 Sebastian P. Brock et al. (eds.), The Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2011), pp: 1, 4, 5–6 (with fig. 1), 9–10, 13, 15–16, 18, 26, 29, 31, 33–34, 36, 37–38, 41, 46, 54, 56, 60, 64, 69, 71, 74, 84, 86, 90, 97–98, 99, 102, 107–108, 126, 127, 128, 132–133, 138–139 (with fig. 47), 145, 153, 155, 162, 163, 164, 178, 191–192, 195–196, 197, 199, 201–202, 209, 213, 220, 229, 237, 249, 252, 260–261, 262, 266, 267, 268, 270, 271–272, 273, 284, 287, 288, 303–304, 314, 316, 317, 322, 327–328, 332, 335, 343, 346, 348, 350, 351, 352, 356, 361, 363, 367, 376, 377, 384, 390, 392, 398, 401, 403, 407, 410–411, 419, 431, 432, 433, 438–439, 444, 446, 448, maps: Map I B1, II B1, III.Link to Syriaca.org Bibliographic Record
  • 3 Ignatius Afram Barsoum, Berule bdire d-ʿal yulpone suryoye hdire, trans. Philoxenos Yuḥanon Dolabani, 2nd ed. (Holland: Bar Hebraeus Verlag, 1991), pp: 556.Link to Syriaca.org Bibliographic Record
  • 4 Ignatius Afram Barsoum, al-Luʼluʼ al-manthūr fī tārīkh al-ʻulūm wa-al-ādāb al-Suryāniyyah, 4th ed. (Holland: Bar Hebraeus Verlag, 1987), pp: 516.Link to Syriaca.org Bibliographic Record
  • 5 Ignatius Afram Barsoum, The Scattered Pearls: A History of Syriac Literature and Sciences, trans. Matti Moosa, 2nd rev. ed. (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2003), pp: 553.Link to Syriaca.org Bibliographic Record
  • 6 Sergey Minov (ed.), A Comprehensive Bibliography on Syriac Christianity (The Center for the Study of Christianity, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2013), entry: Edessa.Link to Syriaca.org Bibliographic Record
  • 7 David Wilmshurst, The ecclesiastical organisation of the Church of the East, 1318-1913, Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium, vol. 582; Subsidia, tomus 104 (Leuven: Peeters, 2000), pp: 53, 65, 361, 362.Link to Syriaca.org Bibliographic Record
  • 8 William Wright, Catalogue of Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum acquired since the year 1838 (London: Gilbert and Rivington, 1870-1872), pp: 2:912.Link to Syriaca.org Bibliographic Record
  • 9 Jean-Baptiste Chabot (ed.), Anonymi auctoris chronicon ad annum Christi 1234 pertinens, Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium, vol. 81, 82, 109; Scriptores Syri, tomus 36, 37, 56 (Paris: E Typographeo Reipublicae, 1916-1937), pp: 2:136.Link to Syriaca.org Bibliographic Record
  • 10 Ignatius Guidi (ed.), Chronica Minora, Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium, vol. 1-2; Scriptores Syri, tomus 1-2 (Paris: E Typographeo Reipublicae, 1903), pp: 1:2, 11, 13.Link to Syriaca.org Bibliographic Record
  • 11 Han J. W. Drijvers, "Jews and Christians at Edessa," Journal of Jewish Studies vol. 36 (1985), pp: 90, 102.
  • 12 Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān (Beirut: Dār al-kutub al-ʿilmiyya, 1990), pp: I:155; III:120.Link to Syriaca.org Bibliographic Record

Names

  • ܐܘܪܗܝ
  • Edessa 2, 5, 6, 7
  • ܐܘܪܗܳܝ 3, 8
  • ܐܘܪܦܰܗ̈ 3
  • أَذاسا 12
  • الرها 4
  • الرُّهاء 12
  • اورفه 4
  • Adme 1
  • Antiochia Kallirhoe 1
  • Urfa 2, 5, 7
  • Urhay 1

Related Places

How to Cite This Entry

Thomas A. Carlson and David A. Michelson, “Edessa — ܐܘܪܗܝ ” in The Syriac Gazetteer, eds. Thomas A. Carlson and David A. Michelson, entry published June 30, 2014, Syriaca.org: The Syriac Reference Portal, ed. David A. Michelson. http://syriaca.org/place/78.

Bibliography:

Carlson, Thomas A. and David A. Michelson, “Edessa — ܐܘܪܗܝ .” In The Syriac Gazetteer, edited by Thomas A. Carlson and David A. Michelson. Entry published June 30, 2014. Syriaca.org: The Syriac Reference Portal, edited by David A. Michelson. http://syriaca.org/place/78.

About this Entry

Entry Title: Edessa — ܐܘܪܗܝ

Publication Date: June 30, 2014

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • David A. Michelson, general editor, Syriaca.org: The Syriac Reference Portal
  • Thomas A. Carlson and David A. Michelson, editors, The Syriac Gazetteer
  • Carlson, Thomas A. and David A. Michelson, entry contributors, “Edessa — ܐܘܪܗܝ

Additional Credit:

  • Initial Barsoum entry creation by David A. Michelson
  • Data merging, Pleiades and Wikipedia linking, and XML by Thomas A. Carlson
  • Syriac description entry by Robert Aydin
  • Arabic description entry by Dayroyo Roger-Youssef Akhrass
  • Wilmshurst index information entry by Anthony Davis

Copyright and License for Reuse

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This entry incorporates copyrighted material from the following work(s):

  • Ignatius Afram Barsoum, Berule bdire d-ʿal yulpone suryoye hdire, trans. Philoxenos Yuḥanon Dolabani, 2nd ed. (Holland: Bar Hebraeus Verlag, 1991).
  • Ignatius Afram Barsoum, al-Luʼluʼ al-manthūr fī tārīkh al-ʻulūm wa-al-ādāb al-Suryāniyyah, 4th ed. (Holland: Bar Hebraeus Verlag, 1987).
  • Ignatius Afram Barsoum, The Scattered Pearls: A History of Syriac Literature and Sciences, trans. Matti Moosa, 2nd rev. ed. (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2003).
  • used under a Creative Commons Attribution license
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